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Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs – a study of 48 cases

The study presents 48 cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs. The causes of AIHA, diagnostic methods, erythrocytes degeneration, dependence on sex, breed and age as well as death rate were described.

The number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes, Ht value and Hb concentration were determined in the examined dogs. Parameters MCV and MCHC were calculated. Traditional blood smears, stained by Diff-Quick method, were made where the percentage of leucocytes and spherocytes were calculated. The smears were stained with methyl-crezyl blue, also in order to calculate the number or reticulocytes and to define the degree of red cell regeneration. In each blood sample the glass agglutination test was made. In 34 patients the direct Coombs test was performed simultaneously at 4 °C and 37 °C for IgG antibody. The resultwas considered positive if the reaction was positive at 1:80 dilution or higher. In 28 patients the test was performed for A NA anti-nuclear antibody detection. Spherocitosis above 2% appeared in 34 dogs (72.3%); schistocytes appeared in 16 patients but their percentage was not more than 5%. Erythrocyte autoagglutination was observed in 40 dogs which is 83.3% of all the examined AIHA cases. In Coombs test IgG antibodies were found in the titre from 1:80 to 1:10400 of 31 cases. IgM antibodies were determined in only 25 patients and found in 2 dogs. C3 complement was found in 3 dogs. In 33 dogs reactive lymphocytes were found which amounted to 70.2% of animals. Regenerative anemias appeared in 15 patients (31.9%). Idiopathic (primary) anemias were present in 9 cases (18.7%). A considerable usefulness of the examined parameters – especially of glass agglutination – was confirmed in AIHA diagnosing which is especially important when Coombs test is impossible or its result is negative.

źródło : Medycyna Wet. 2006, 62 (9)

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